Chemie supertěžkých prvků – test mezí platnosti periodického zákona

  • J. John Katedra jaderné chemie, Fakulta jaderná a fyzikálně inženýrská, České vysoké učení technické v Praze, Praha
Klíčová slova: supertěžké prvky, SHE, transaktinoidy, chemie jednotlivých atomů, chemie v plynné fázi, relativistické efekty, periodický zákon

Abstrakt

Chemistry of "superheavy elements" / transactinoids (SHE) is a rather rare field of chemistry on the borderline between chemistry and physics that deals with the chemical properties of elements from the 7th period of the Periodic Table of Elements (PTE). Due to the very high proton numbers of these elements Z, the properties of their electron shells are significantly influenced by relativistic effects resulting from the relativistic increase of mass of electrons, the velocities of which steadily increase with increasing Z. Extreme consequence of these relativistic effects could be chemical properties differing from those following from the assumed position of the element in PTE based on its proton number. The goal of this review article is to summarize the existing information about the chemical properties of SHE and to test the assumed validity of the periodic law even for the heaviest elements. The conclusions made from the results of the most recent studies of chemical properties of SHE indicate that the structure of the Periodic Table of Elements in its current form remains intact.

Publikované
2019-04-15
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