The Application of Quantum Dots in Bioanalytical Chemistry
AbstraktQuantum dots (QD) are a novel type of nanoparticles used for fluorescent labeling of biomolecules. This review explains the structure, physical properties and synthesis of colloidal quantum dots. Bioconjugation strategies developed in the last ten years are reviewed. Applicability of QDs in biomolecule labeling in bioanalytical chemistry and biology is described and compared with the routinely used organic fluorophores. However, a number of problems have to be solved to achieve this goal, including development of robust protocols for QD bioconjugation, characterization of bioconjugates, and reduction of microorganism toxicity. A promising field for application of QDs is the development of fluorescence- coded microparticles (quantum dot bar code) which allow simultaneous detection of tens or hundreds of target analytes in the sample. This inventive step leads to the development of portable analyzers of DNA and protein markers.