Toxicity of Magnetic Nanoparticles
aDepartment of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, b Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice
Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, nanotoxicity, viability, oxidative stress
In recent years, Fe oxide nanoparticles have been increasingly used in a wide range of biomedical applications, including magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic hyperthermia, targeted drug and gene delivery, cell tracking and magnetic cell separation. Although the number of studies examining the toxicity of Fe oxide nanoparticles is growing exponentially, the in-depth toxicity studies are scanty and the mechanisms underlying their cytotoxicity remain still mostly unclear. This review focuses on the assessment of the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of Fe oxide nanoparticles and discusses the biological processes underlying their toxicity including cellular uptake, production of reactive O species, modulation of actin and microtubular cytoskeleton, DNA damage and activation of intracellular signalling pathways. The significance of the proteins associated with Fe oxide nanoparticles and assays for assessing their cytotoxicity are also considered. We have tested cytotoxic effects of silica-coated Fe oxide nanoparticles on human lung adenocarcinoma, epithelial cell line A549 using the xCELLigence system for label-free and real-time monitoring of cell viability.
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