Extractions Complying With the Principles of Green Chemistry Used in Trace Analysis of Metals

Page: 269

I. Hagarová

Institute of Laboratory Research of Geomaterials, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic

Keywords: green analytical chemistry, trace metal analysis, extraction, microextraction, separation, sample preparation


An increasing interest in rapid, cost-effective, and environment-friendly sample preparation techniques leads to the development of extractions which are compatible with the principles of green chemistry. This review provides basic principles and current applications of the extractions useful in (ultra)trace analysis of metals. These techniques include: supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized hot-water extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, liquid-liquid microextraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, cloud point extraction, solid-phase microextraction, and microwave-assisted extraction.


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