Iodinated Contrast Media as Water Pollutants
Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague
Keywords: iodinated contrast media, adsorbable organically bound halogens, water, transformation, determination, elimination
This review focuses on the most frequent iodinated contrast materials (ICM) used in X-ray diagnostics such as iopromide, iomeprol, iohexol, iopamidol, iothalamic, ioxithalamic acid. The main goal is to stress the potential occurrence of transformation products of these materials, which may put non-target organisms at risk. Attention is paid not only to the occurrence of ICM in various waters but also to biotic and abiotic processes eliminating ICM from the aqueous environment. In these processes biological treatment of wastewaters, ozonation, chlorination, chloramination, photolysis, advanced oxidations of wastewaters occur. Transformation products of ICM may affect the environment as well as human health. The effects have not yet been fully understood. Currently, reverse osmosis appears to be an appropriate method for the elimination of ICM since it does not give rise to any transformation products. The review also describes analytical methods for determination of ICM in water. In addition, it also discusses separation methods for isolation and concentration of ICM or their metabolites from aqueous media by SPE while the determination of relevant organics is usually performed by LC-MS.
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