Lipoxygenases and Their Significance in Biochemical Processes in Plant Organisms
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of Pharmaceuticals, Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University, Bratislava
Lipoxygenases (LOX; linoleate:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 220.127.116.11) are a family of dioxygenases that do not contain hem-bonded iron at the active site. They catalyze peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular linolic and linolenic acids, which gives hydroperoxy derivatives of (9S)- or (13S)-polyunsaturated fatty acids (9-LOX or 13-LOX, respectively). Lipid peroxidation is important in plant evolution and for their response to various forms of stress, both of biotic and abiotic origin. LOX is the starting enzyme of the lipoxygenase metabolic pathway producing oxylipins such as signal molecules, antimicrobial and antifungal compounds.
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