Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Third Millenium
J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague
The present review gives a concise overview of fundamentals, the present state and potential applications of ultraviolet, laser and X-ray photoelectron spectral methods such as UPS, PEEM, REMPI, ZEKE, XPS, HXPS and APPES are currently used. Attention is also paid to relations between the measured and calculated electron ionization and binding energies. The potentials of XPS methods to study surfaces and surface nanostructures at ambient pressure are highlighted. The advent of a new generation of photoelectron spectrometers and of new radiation sources significantly increased our knowledge in many important areas of chemistry and physics including electron structure of molecules, molecular ions and complexes, clusters, reaction intermediates in atmospheric and environmental chemistry, biochemistry, materials science and nanoscience.
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