Starch Level and Composition of Wheat, Rye and Triticale Grains
a Research Institute of Plant Production, Piešťany, Slovak Republic, b University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, Trnava, Slovak Republic
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on main wheat grain parameters important in bioethanol production - starch content, amylose/amylopectin ratio, and α-amylase (α-AMS) activity. Forty-eight wheat cultivars from two different years and 16 cultivars from four Slovak regions were assessed. In addition, the parameters of wheat, rye and triticale were compared. Differences between individual cereals and their cultivars in all three parameters were found. The highest starch content was observed in wheat cultivars grown in the locality Vígľaš-Pstruša. The starch content and α-AMS activity were markedly high at low temperatures and with more rainfall during grain maturation. The locality and year did not affect the amylose/amylopectin ratio. From the viewpoint of evaluated parameters, new Slovak cultivars Pavlina and Veldava offer good prospects in bioethanol production. Both the cultivars show high starch and amylopectin contents and the α-AMS activity.
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